RFID tags use radio waves to read or capture information (Radio frequency identification). RFID tags work together with a transmitter and receiver. It can be placed on physical objects to create real-time data tracking.
RFID based tags have the following system in receiver and transmitter arrangement; It works with an antenna to receive and transmit signals, with a microchip that stores and processes information. RFID-tags contain a specific serial number for the physical object on which it is placed. Two-way radio waves send a signal to the tag, using an antenna to read the information encoded on the tags. The tag that receives the signal transmits the written information to the reader. The reader completes the process by transmitting the information to an RFID computer program.
RFID tags are often compared to barcodes. Similar to barcodes, RFID ones are used to quickly read the information on products. But the difference between barcodes and tags is because RFID tags use radio wave technology, they don’t need a direct line of sight to be read. In this way, they can quickly read trucks of products in a single second. In this way, RFID tags offer a great advantage in increasing efficiency.
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Types of RFID Tags and RFID Systems
One of the fastest developing systems of recent years, RFID effects aims to adapt to different user needs. In this context, it is observed that there are two types of RFID tags; Passive tags and Active i.e. battery-powered tags.
Active RFID Tags
Active RFID tags have their own transmitters and power supplies. Power sources are usually a battery. These types of active tags are mostly available as UHF (Ultra High Frequency) solutions, and their reading distances can be extended up to 100 m in some cases, providing high performance.
Active tags are often used to track large assets such as shipping containers, vehicles, and machinery. Creating versatile performance, Active RFID tags are also often equipped with sensors that measure and transmit temperature, humidity, light, and shock/vibration data for the physical objects to which they are attached.
Passive RFID Tags
In passive RFID solutions, the external reader and reader antenna send a signal to the tag. The transmitted signal is used to open the tag and reflect the energy back to the reader. There are passive LF (Low Frequency), HF (High Frequency), and UHF (Ultra High Frequency) systems. Reading intervals are shorter than active tags.
Passive tags are generally smaller, cheaper, and more flexible than active tags. In this way, they are candidates to be the most used RFID type. Unlike active tags, passive ones are generally used to be placed on or embedded in products.
RFID Tags Frequencies
While RFID tags are divided into passive and active, they also offer different features in frequency types. In this context, there are three different types of RFID systems that vary according to the frequency band they work in. Frequency refers to the size of the radio waves used to communicate between RFID tags and readers. RFID frequency types are as follows.
Low-Frequency RFID (LF RFID); includes frequencies from 30 kHz to 300 kHz. This band gap provides a short reading range of 10 cm. It has a slower read speed than higher frequencies but is not as sensitive to radio wave interference. LF RFID is often used for access control and livestock tracking.
High-Frequency RFID (HF RFID); covers frequencies from 3 MHz to 30 MHz. High-frequency systems are moderately susceptible to interference. HF RFID is used for ticketing, payment, and data transfer applications.
Ultra High Frequency
Ultra High-Frequency RFID (UHF RFID); covers the 300 MHz to 3 GHz range. This band gap allows the reading range to be as long as 12 m. Ultra-high-frequency RFID tags have a faster data transfer rate than others. UHF RFID is often used in the retail industry to manage inventory as it is most susceptible to radio wave interference.